Anthropology and Black History Lesson Plan

  • This material should take no more than 8 hours to complete; students can dedicate an average of 15 minutes per day throughout February to manage the workload.
  • You’re strongly encouraged to import the corresponding Canvas Shell into your course
  • Audio lessons can be streamed on Soundcloud
  • Explain the ways in which legacies of colonialism impact our field and our modern world
  • Define the four fields of anthropology using specific examples from the work of modern anthropologists
  • Apply the intersectionality when examining cultural beliefs and practices
  • Apply the principle of cultural relativism when examining cultural beliefs and practices
  • Explain the importance of ethical fieldwork and participant observation
  • Critique the concept of “race” and deconstruct racist views

February 1: Introduction to Anthropology

February 2: What is anthropology?

  1. Cultural Anthropology
  2. Biological Anthropology
  3. Linguistics
  4. Anthropological Archaeology

February 3: Holism and Intersectionality

  • Medical anthropologists worked in West Africa throughout the Ebola epidemic. Simply examining the genetic material of the virus was not sufficient in understanding why and how the disease spread so rapidly. Anthropologists therefore looked to the religious beliefs and practices of the community to learn that some West African communities touch and hold the bodies of their deceased loved ones as part of their religious and cultural ritual. Holistically combining this cultural knowledge with the scientific knowledge that Ebola is still contagious immediately after a person’s death, social scientists and doctors were able to see the big picture and to understand the progression of the epidemic (Wilkinson et al., 2017).
  • Marriage is practiced in a variety of ways and, in some rural Tibetan communities, women marry multiple men at the same time; most commonly a woman will marry all of the brothers from one family. We call this “fraternal polyandry”. Anthropologists have examined this practice at length and, by examining the culture holistically, we understand that a variety of factors cause a family to enter this type of marriage (Starkweather and Hames, 2012). In traditional Tibetan society, families prefer to keep their farms intact without splitting the land between children (fraternal polyandry keeps the entire farm intact within the same family) (Goldstein 1987). Traditional Tibetan society does not employ the same gender expectations that forbid a woman from having multiple husbands. So, by looking at the big picture and considering farming traditions, rules of inheritance, gender roles, and sexuality in this society, we can understand why these communities would practice fraternal polyandry.

February 4: Intersectionality and Black Feminism

February 5: Worldview

  • Your understanding of “good” and “bad.”
  • Your understanding of “better” and “worse.”
  • Your ideas of how people should behave.
  • Your idea of what gender roles are.
  • Your idea of what justice is.
  • Your understanding of history.
  • Etc.

February 6th: An Overview of Anthropology’s Relationship with Colonialism

  • Producing propaganda that presented native peoples as “savage” or less-than-human (while producing propaganda that their own people were “civilized”). When these early anthropologists were viewed as “experts,” they were taken at their word by Europeans living at home. And, when anthropologists produced accounts of culture that were steeped in racism, they were justifying the abusive control that European powers sought to keep over the rest of the world (Crewe and Axelby 28–31; Kuper 111; Willis 123).
  • Developing a hierarchy of cultural value. European anthropologists believed that their culture was, inherently, the “best” culture. They then strove to compare all other cultures against that standard in order to determine which people were more advanced than the rest. This logic is inherently flawed because the European standard of greatness is not a universal standard and these cultural hierarchies were not objective (Ibid; Trouillot 2003; 1; Mines 312–313).
  • Collecting census data. By surveying the number and types of people in each community, the colonial governments could better exercise control. (ibid)
  • Studying and learning the local culture and languages. It was easier to control a population if you could understand how they spoke to each other and about themselves. (ibid)
  • Studying and learning about local judicial systems so that the foreign governments could use them to better control the local population. (Ibid)

February 7th: William S. Willis on Anthropology’s Colonial Heritage

February 8th: Introduction to Cultural Relativism

  1. This belief prevents antisocial behavior. We define antisocial behavior as any behavior that does not conform with society’s expectations. So, for example, if you get into a fight with a person in public and then learn that they fell and broke their leg afterward, you might be accused of hurting them with your anger. In Azande society, a person who is accused of witchcraft is often kicked out of the community or sometimes killed. So, many of the Azande will make an effort to maintain composure and to not behave with great jealousy because they don’t want to be accused of being witches if the person they fought with has some bad luck (Evans-Pritchard 1935, 419). Anthropologists call these “witchcraft accusations” and they serve the function of preventing antisocial behavior (Evans-Pritchard 1935, 25).
  2. This belief explains misfortune or suffering. To many human beings, life can feel exceptionally illogical and out of our control. All cultures find a way to explain why bad things happen. Witchcraft beliefs explain misfortune by tying the misfortune to people’s intentions (Evans-Pritchard 1935, 30).

February 9th: Sheila Walker Reframes Ethnocentrism

February 10: Participant Observation

  1. Stay for an extended period of time: This may seem obvious to us now, but it was groundbreaking at the time. Malinowski wanted to make sure that anthropologists spent years living among the people they were studying in order to have enough time to fully understand all elements of the culture.
  2. Learn the local language: If you are multilingual then you know that different languages lead to different ways of thinking. Malinowski realized that you can’t understand a community if you can’t learn how they speak about themselves and about the world.
  3. Explore the mundane imponderabilia: in other words, “make the strange familiar and make the familiar strange.” Anthropologists strive to make sense of cultural practices that seem “strange” while equally trying to identify what might be unique or “strange” from an outsider’s perspective in order to highlight what, exactly, is a social construct in our own cultures.
  4. Get off the veranda:” Malinowski wanted anthropologists to leave their homes and actively participate in the cultural practices of the people they were studying (DeWalt 1–17). It is only by getting off the veranda and participating, while also observing, that we can ever fully know the people that we are studying.

February 11: Fieldwork Ethics

  1. Do No Harm: Above all else, anthropologists must not harm their communities of study. This principle emphasizes the role of anthropologists as researchers whereby we must not experiment on or manipulate the communities who we are striving to better understand. Additionally, we cannot publish information that would jeopardize the safety or wellbeing of the community.
  2. Be Open and Honest Regarding Your Work: Deception has no role in anthropological fieldwork. Anthropologists must remain transparent about our work. We share the purpose and implications of our fieldwork with our informants.
  3. Obtain Informed Consent and Necessary Permissions: Before conducting any interviews or field observations, anthropologists must communicate their research interests and purpose to their informants and gain informed consent. Information gathered without consent cannot be used in any anthropological publications.
  4. Weigh Competing Ethical Obligations Due Collaborators and Affected Parties: Anthropologists must consider how time, research, and publication might impact the people and institutions who we research and work with. Vulnerable groups must be protected and prioritized in fieldwork, research, and publication.
  5. Make Your Results Accessible: The communities that we study have a right to understand and engage with any publications that result from our fieldwork. Your conclusions must be made available to the people who we interviewed and observed.
  6. Protect and Preserve Your Records: Anthropologists must keep their research preserved (while protecting confidentiality).
  7. Maintain Respectful and Ethical Professional Relationships: Anthropologists are required to respect colleagues and informants alike. Always credit informants or fellow anthropologists for their own information and research while always prioritizing equitable workplaces and field sites.

February 12: Presenting Ethnographic Research

February 13: The Construction of Race

February 14: Race and Biology

  • Blood Type: A person can either have type A, B, O, or AB blood
  • Cleft chin: A person either has a cleft chin or does not
  • Earlobe attachment: A person either has attached earlobes or detached earlobes
  • In Brazil, race is based on skin tone. In this way, a person can actually be a different race than their own parents (Guest).
  • In the United States, race is based largely on parentage. While physical characteristics are key in determining race, we typically assign a person’s race based on what races their parents are. The United States implemented the “rule of hypodescent” which categorized mixed-race people with any amount of African heritage as “Black” and not at all white. Initially, this rule was used to expand power over the enslaved population (Delgado and Stefancic 152).
  • In South Africa, race is based on ancestry (African ancestry, European ancestry, etc.). In contested cases, the “pencil test” was used whereby people were asked to place a pencil in their hair and, if the pencil didn’t fall out, they were categorized as Black. Black people were then separated from society’s essential resources throughout the era of Apartheid.

February 15: Closely Examining Race

February 16: Vindicationism

February 17: Applied Anthropology

February 18: Anthropology and Abolitionism

February 19: Critical Thinking and the Production of Knowledge

February 20: Power and Story-Telling

February 21: “Slave Bible From The 1800s Omitted Key Passages That Could Incite Rebellion”

  1. What types of material were removed from this Bible? What portions were left in? What does this tell you about the way that myth was used to shape behavior and worldview within these colonies?
  2. Have you seen something like this in your own life? How do people include or exclude religious excerpts in order to meet a political agenda today?

February 22: Intersectionality Reflection

  1. What does Crenshaw mean when she speaks about “frames”? How do these frames tangibly impact our cultural lives?
  2. What is the “problem” that Crenshaw proposes? How can a new word (intersectionality) help us understand the reality of this problem?
  3. How is this an example of gender blindness? How is this an example of racial blindness? And, why must we remember that these two trends are not actually separable?

February 23: “Towards a Native Anthropology”

  1. Using specific examples from the text, explain why the traditional view held that “insider” anthropologists could not conduct reliable fieldwork. Please properly cite your evidence in-text.
  2. How does Jones address “the problem of point of view?” What are some strengths that the “insider” has when entering the field?
  3. How does “participation” resemble “solidarity” in the eyes of the community? Give a specific example as explained by Jones.
  4. Ultimately, how does Jones view the power of the “insider’s”and “outsider’s” views?

February 24: “Teens Dig Into Black History As Urban Archaeologists”

  1. What does this story tell us about native anthropology (the practice of studying ourselves)? How might you be able to study your own local community in an equally powerful way?
  2. What can anthropology students offer to our field? What unique perspectives can the next generation of anthropologists bring, in your opinion?

February 25: “Skeletons in the Anthropological Closet”

  1. Using specific examples from the text, how did Willis view the shortcomings of anthropology’s claims of anti-racism?
  2. What was anthropology’s role in the establishment of racial hierarchies? Use specific examples from the text.

February 26: Study Guide

  • Cultural Anthropology
  • Biological Anthropology
  • Biological Determinism
  • Anthropological Archaeology
  • Tulsa Massacre
  • Restorative Justice
  • Linguistics
  • Applied Anthropology
  • Four-Field Approach
  • Holistic Perspective
  • Intersectionality
  • Black Feminist Anthropology
  • Worldview
  • Colonialism
  • Armchair Anthropology
  • Scientific Antiracism
  • Ethnocentrism
  • Cultural Relativism
  • Azande
  • Antisocial Behavior
  • Positive Ethnocentrism
  • Participant Observation
  • Emic Perspective
  • Etic Perspective
  • Native Anthropology
  • Ethnography
  • Collective Memory
  • Race
  • Racism
  • Gene
  • Allele
  • Discrete Trait
  • Continuous Trait
  • Rule Hypodescent
  • Pencil Test
  • Melanin
  • Structural Violence
  • Structural Gender Violence
  • Medical Racism
  • Vindicationism
  • Caste-and-Class Framework
  • Abolitionism
  • Expert
  • The Production of Knowledge
  • Zora Neale Hurston
  • Caroline Bond Day
  • Alicia Odewale
  • John Wesley Gilbert
  • Mark Hanna Watkins
  • Irma McClaurin
  • Johnetta Betsch Cole
  • Faye Harrison
  • Rachel Chapman
  • Niara Sudarkasa
  • Franz Boas
  • William Shedrick Willis Jr.
  • Sheila Walker
  • Bronislaw Malinowski
  • Delmos Jones
  • Glenn Jordan
  • Katherine Dunham
  • Pearl Primus
  • Charles Preston Warren
  • Dána-Ain Davis
  • Ivan Van Sertima
  • St. Clare Drake
  • Louis Eugene King
  • Vera Mae Green
  • Allison Davis
  • James Lowell Gibbs
  • Savannah Shange
  • Michelle Rolph-Trouillot

February 27: Anthropology and Black History Quiz

February 28: Your Favorite Anthropologist

  • Which anthropologist had the most interesting and/or useful approach, in your opinion?
  • How might you build your own anthropological research upon their research?
  • What areas of research did this anthropologist focus on that are similar to your own research?
  • How did your anthropologist-of-choice blaze the trail for you to study anthropology?

--

--

--

Cultural Anthropologist in Los Angeles

Love podcasts or audiobooks? Learn on the go with our new app.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store
Amanda Zunner-Keating

Amanda Zunner-Keating

Cultural Anthropologist in Los Angeles

More from Medium

Safe Haven:

3 Reasons We Need Restorative Justice Now

The Continued Rise of the Intersectional Venture Fund: Lessons from Project Sage 4.0

The World ‘Succession’ Made